The resonators
The resonators of the early vina had only a single opening at their base. The top was thus protected from pressure applied on the tube solely by a small convex wooden disc, or by a crown made out of coconut husk, flattened on to the inner surface of the gourd.
Medieval treatises specify that the resonators were fixed to the tube with the help of a cord that, after piercing the tube and the gourd, went through the centre of the disc and was then firmly twisted and fixed on to the inner surface with a small wooden peg. This technique was later replaced by a threaded metallic shaft attached to the tube and piercing the resonator; the entire device then reinforced by a nut screwed on to the wooden disc.